Navȯmar


The Language of Navȯmar

Natively known as: Nāvȯmɑr /næˈvomɑɹ/

…and he stood holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind…ɑ pɑy bah hȯy ābah vae ɑ oyɑ ābah neiyȱl shēl ɑy nguuh
Pronunciation: /ɑ pɑˈy bah hoˈy æˈbah vɛˈɨ ɑ ɔˈɪɑ æˈbah neˈɪyˌɔːl ʃiːl ɑˈy ŋʊˈʌ/Navȯmar word order: and stood he holding his hat and turned his wet face to the wind

Spelling & Phonology

Consonant inventory: /b d f h k l m n p v w z ŋ ɹ ʃ ʤ ʧ θ/

↓Manner/Place→ Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b d k
Affricate ʧ ʤ
Fricative f v θ z ʃ h
Approximant ɹ
Lateral approximant l

Co-articulated phonemes

↓Manner/Place→ Labial-velar
Approximant w

Vowel inventory: /e iː o æ ɑ ɔ ɔː ɛ ɨ ɪ ʊ ʌ/

Front Central Back
High ɨ
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid e o
Low-mid ɛ ʌ ɔ ɔː
Near-low æ
Low ɑ
  Stress pattern: Second — stress is on the second syllable
Spelling rules:
Pronunciation Spelling
ŋ ng
d dt
ʧ ch
ʃ sh
z sz
ʤ g
θ th
ɹ r
æɛ ah
ɛæ ay
ayy ay
ɔː ō
o ȯ
ōȯ ōh
ȯō ȯa
ɨiː ēh
iːɨ ēa
æ ā
ɔɪ oy
ɛ a
ē
ɪ i
ɨ e
ʊ u
ʌ uh

Grammar

Main word order: Verb Subject Object (Prepositional phrase). “Mary opened the door with a key” turns into Opened Mary the door with a key.
Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.
Adposition: prepositions

Nouns

Nouns have two cases:

  • Nominative is the doer of a verb: dog bites man.
  • Accusative is the done-to of a verb: man bites dog.
Nominative No affix
taȯ /taˈo/human (doinɡ the verb)
Accusative If starts with vowel: Prefix s-
Else: Prefix o-

ȯtaȯ /oˈtao/(verb done to) human

Definite If starts with vowel: Prefix d-
Else: Prefix id-

idttaȯ /idˈtao/the human
Indefinite No affix
taȯ /taˈo/a human

Nouns have three genders:

  • Animate is anything that is alive and has consciousness.
  • Inanimate Causative is anything that (a) is alive but does not have consciousness or (b) is categorized as a spiritual entity, physical (often cataclysmic) natural event, some body part, or an emotion.
  • Inanimate Applicative is everything else.
Animate Inanimate-causative Inanimate-applicative
Singular No affix
taȯ /taˈo/human
Suffix -a
eānga /ɨˈæŋa/doɡ
Suffix -u
kuhoyu /kʌˈɔɪˌu/paper
Plural Suffix -se
taȯse /taˈose/humans
Suffix -sa
eāngsa /ɨˈæŋsa/doɡs
Suffix -su
kuhoysu /kʌˈɔɪˌsu/papers

Pronouns

Nominative Accusative
1st singular kha /kha/I /go/me
2nd singular khu /khu/you ghu /ghu/you
3rd singular bah /bah/he, she, it gah /gah/him, her, it
1st plural lszȯ /lzo/we jsa /jsa/us
2nd plural lszu /lzu/you all jsu /jsu/you all
3rd plural lah /lah/they jah /jah/them

Possessive determiners

1st singular ākha /ækˈha/my
2nd singular ākhu /ækˈhu/your
3rd singular ābah /æˈbah/his, her, its
1st plural ālszȯ /ælˈzo/our
2nd plural ālszu /ælˈzu/your (pl)
3rd plural ālah /æˈlah/their

Verbs

Present No affix
fuhoy /fʌˈɔɪ/eat
Past If starts with vowel: Prefix n-
Else: Prefix nu-

nufuhoy /nuˈfʌɔˌɪ/ate
Future If starts with vowel: Prefix h-
Else: Prefix ha-

hafuhoy /haˈfʌɔˌɪ/will eat

Perfect aspect

The perfect aspect in English is exemplified in ‘I have read this book’, which expresses an event that took place before the time spoken but which has an effect on or is in some way still relevant to the present.

Navȯmar uses an affix for the perfect aspect:

Perfect If starts with vowel: Prefix r-
Else: Prefix ri-

rifuhoy /riˈfʌɔˌɪ/have eaten

Articles

Navȯmar encodes definite article ‘the’, and indefinite article ‘a’ in noun affixes. See Noun section.

Numbers

Navȯmar has a base-10 number system:

1 – ȱy
2 – ɑyuh
3 – ēn
4 – ēl
5 – fȯ
6 – thuh
7 – uhȱ
8 – szā
9 – ngeiā
10 – ēm
11 – ȱy ɑ ēm “one and ten”
100 – aɑm “hundred”
101 – aɑm ɑ ȱy “hundred and one”
200 – ɑyuh aɑm
1000 – eiyȯ “thousand”

Derivational morphology

Adjective → adverb = If starts with vowel: Prefix p-
Else: Prefix pæ-

Adjective → noun (the quality of being [adj]) = Prefix eɪ-
Adjective → verb (to make something [adj]) = Prefix θaɪ-
Noun → adjective (having the quality of [noun]) = Prefix næ-
Noun → adjective relating to noun (e.g. economy → economic) = If starts with vowel: Prefix n-
Else: Prefix næ-

Noun to verb = If starts with vowel: Prefix n-
Else: Prefix nɔː-

Verb → adjective (result of doing [verb]) = If starts with vowel: Prefix n-
Else: Prefix nɑ-

Tending to = Prefix ʌ-
Verb → noun (the act of [verb]) = Prefix ɨ-
Verb → noun that verb produces (e.g. know → knowledge) = Prefix ɹo-
One who [verb]s (e.g. paint → painter) = If starts with vowel: Prefix ɹ-
Else: Prefix ɹɔɪ-

Place of (e.g. wine → winery) = If starts with vowel: Prefix f-
Else: Prefix fɨ-

Diminutive = If starts with vowel: Prefix θ-
Else: Prefix θeɪ-

Augmentative = If starts with vowel: Prefix h-
Else: Prefix hʌ-